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(450-404 BC)

When the philosopher Socrates was tried and convicted, in 399 BC, for corrupting the young men of Athens, it is possible that the example of Alcibiades was on the minds of the judges. Intelligent, handsome, and charming, Alcibiades was an outstanding politician and a brilliant general. Unfortunately he was motivated entirely by personal ambition, and his loyalties were determined by expediency. His unscrupulous dealings made him a divisive influence in ancient Greece during most of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC).

Born in Athens about 450 BC, Alcibiades was raised by the statesman Pericles. As a youth he seemed inspired by the brilliance and integrity of Socrates. But he soon turned away from this example to pursue his personal goals.

During the course of the Peloponnesian War, he switched his loyalty from Athens to the enemy, Sparta, and back again, as advantage and circumstance dictated. Upset by a peace settlement in 420 BC, he fomented an anti-Spartan alliance that was defeated at the battle of Mantineia in 418 BC. Fortunate enough to escape banishment from Athens, he was given partial command of an expedition to Sicily against Syracuse. But when he was recalled to Athens to stand trial for religious offenses, Alcibiades defected to Sparta. When the Spartans expelled him as a troublemaker in 412, he fled to Sardis in Asia Minor to enlist the aid of the Persians in overthrowing the government at Athens. Failing in this endeavor, he was nevertheless recalled to Athens to help the navy defeat the Spartans between 411 and 408 BC.

His spectacular success in this conflict made him extremely popular in his native city, and he was given command of the conduct of the war. But a naval defeat in 407 led to his ostracism. Alcibiades went to Thrace and later to Phrygia in northwestern Asia Minor. There the Spartans induced the Persian governor to have him murdered in 404 BC.

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