Home   About Greece   Hotels   Travel Agencies   Campings   Restaurants   Rent a Car   Shopping   Real Estate

learn about Greece

Services Search

Encyclopedia History
History of Greece
Museums in Greece
Lifestyle of Greeks
Persons of History
The Agora
Greek Literature
Greek Creativity
Economy and Society
Hellenistic Politics
The Dorians
Aegean Civilization
Maritime History
Akropolis of Athens
Ancient Athens
Ancient Sparta
Peloponnesian War
(428-348 BC)

"The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." This assessment by the 20th-century philosopher-mathematician Alfred North Whitehead can be considered only a slight exaggeration. The religious traditions of Judaism and Christianity have provided one foundation of Western civilization, while the Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle have provided another.

The influence of Plato has been persistent and unbroken. His Academy at Athens, which opened in about 387 BC, was the first forerunner of today's colleges and universities. It was a school devoted to philosophy, law, and scientific research--primarily mathematics--and it endured as an institution until AD 529, when it and other non-Christian schools were closed by the emperor Justinian.

Plato's influence extended far beyond the Academy. In his lifetime he was the most celebrated teacher of his day. After his death his ideas were taken up by countless other thinkers. Philo of Alexandria used Plato's ideas to give a philosophical framework to Judaism. Early Christian writers eagerly embraced Plato's thought as the best available instrument for explaining and defending the teachings of the Bible and church tradition. Of the Christian Platonists, St. Augustine of Hippo was the best known and most influential. Plato's influence spread into Islam as well, through the writings of the philosophers Avicenna and Averroes.

Plato was born in Athens in about 428 BC and grew up during the decades of conflict with Sparta and other city-states. His parents, Ariston and Perictione, were one of the most distinguished and aristocratic couples in the city. Of the details of Plato's early life almost nothing is known. Because of his family's position it is likely that he was acquainted with Socrates from childhood. Plato probably intended to go into politics, but the fate that Socrates met at the hands of Athenian politicians changed his mind.

With the forced suicide of Socrates in 399, Plato and other followers took temporary refuge in Megara. Some early biographers say that he then traveled around the Mediterranean world, visiting other Greek city-states, Egypt, Italy, and Sicily. None of the reports can be confirmed except for a trip to Sicily. There he met and befriended Dion, brother-in-law of the ruler of Syracuse, Dionysius I. Sometime after the death of Socrates Plato decided to devote himself to philosophy and teaching. He opened the Academy and remained with it as teacher, with two brief interruptions, until his death in about 348 BC.

The interruptions had to do with the government in Syracuse. Dionysius I died in 367 and was succeeded by Dionysius II, an uneducated youth. Dion called on Plato to come to Syracuse to teach the new ruler. Plato agreed, but the cause proved hopeless and he returned to Athens. He made one more journey to Syracuse in 361-360.

Plato's complete body of work has come down to the present. No genuine writing was lost, though a number of false writings were passed along as his. If the 'Epistles' are considered one item, there are 36 works. All, except for the letters, are called dialogues because they are presented mostly in conversational style as discussions between two or more individuals. One of the masterpieces of world literature is the 'Republic'. Like the 'Laws'--Plato's last work--it is book length, while many others are much shorter.

The earliest dialogues were those in which Socrates takes the lead in conversation. The shorter ones usually deal with one issue. The 'Lysis', for instance, examines the nature of friendship, while the 'Meno' is a discussion of virtue. The 'Apology' is the last statement of Socrates about his life and work through speeches at his trial for impiety.

The 'Republic' discusses the nature of justice and the institutions of society. In some ways it is utopian in that it describes Plato's ideal society. But it also deals with the whole range of human knowledge, the purpose and content of education, and the nature of science. Much of it is a comprehensive ethical treatise in which three types of lives are distinguished. The philosopher is devoted to attaining wisdom, the hedonist seeks only pleasure and self-gratification, and the man of action desires recognition for his practical abilities.

Home   Photo Gallery   Our Services   Site Map   Links Exchange   My Account   Contact Us

Holidays in Greece, Greece Travel, Accomodation in Greece.
© Holidays in Greece. All rights reserved.

www.dietup.gr : Online Ηλεκτρονικός Διαιτολόγος εντελώς Δωρεάν!

Το dietup.gr ήρθε για να κάνει τη σωστή διατροφή...παιχνίδι!

Το dietup.gr είναι το νέο portal Διατροφής, Υγείας, Ευεξίας και Ψυχολογίας που έρχεται να αλλάξει τη διάθεση σας και να ανεβάσει την αυτοπεποίθηση σας. Μ’ ένα κλικ μπορείτε να περιπλανηθείτε:

  • σ’ εκατοντάδες σχετικά άρθρα γραμμένα από έγκριτους επιστήμονες.
  • αλλά κυρίως να δημιουργήσετε εύκολα & γρήγορα το δικό σας εβδομαδιαίο διατροφολόγιο εντελώς δωρεάν.

Η φιλοσοφία μας; Απλή!
Θέλουμε η σωστή διατροφή να γίνει μέρος της ζωής όλων μας, απλά, εύκολα & χωρίς υπερβολές! Το dietup.gr έρχεται να προσφέρει εξατομικευμένα διατροφικά προγράμματα και συμβουλές, χωρίς κόστος και με ελάχιστο χρόνο, με μια απλή δωρεάν εγγραφή σε ένα από τα προγράμματα μας!

Πιο συγκεκριμένα με το dietup.gr:
Κάνοντας 3 κλικ, σε λιγότερο από 1 λεπτό, βλέπετε το εβδομαδιαίο μενού σας.

Τα διαιτολόγια σας είναι εξατομικευμένα, κι αυτό εξασφαλίζεται με τη συμπλήρωση ενός απλού ερωτηματολογίου (ύψος, βάρος, φύλο, ηλικία, φυσική δραστηριότητα κτλ) κατά την εγγραφή σας.

Δεν είστε θεατές! Μπορείτε να επέμβετε δυναμικά στο εβδομαδιαίο σας διατροφολόγιο, αλλάζοντας οποιοδήποτε γεύμα δε σας ικανοποιεί με κάποιο άλλο, παρόμοιας διατροφικής αξίας, μέσα από μια λίστα πολλών και νόστιμων επιλογών!

Έχετε πλήρη επιστημονική ενημέρωση μέσα από τις ενότητες Γυναίκα, Άντρας, Παιδί πάνω σε άρθρα διατροφής, υγείας, ψυχολογίας και fitness, με τη σφραγίδα δεκάδων επιστημονικών συνεργατών του dietup.gr.

Ενημερώνεστε για θέματα μόδας και ομορφιάς καθώς και για τα νέα της αγοράς!
Διαβάζετε πεντανόστιμες συνταγές! Και μη διστάσετε να δοκιμάσετε να υλοποιήσετε και τις light προτάσεις!

Τέλος το dietup.gr έχει προβλέψει για τη διατροφή, την υγεία και την εκπαίδευση του κατοικιδίου σας!
Κι όλα αυτά είναι μόνο η αρχή!
Ξεκινήστε κι εσείς!
Cheer Up! Diet Up!!

Δείτε το σαν ένα ευχάριστο παιχνίδι που μέσα σε λίγους μήνες μπορεί να αλλάξει ολόκληρη τη ζωή σας!